Before I dig deeper into this passage of scripture, let’s look at what Shaddai means. The Hebrew Strong’s Dictionary explains that the meaning of Shaddai (shad-day) is Almighty, however, other Hebrew lexicons say that the etymology (or the origin of the word) is unknown. The definition of almighty according to Webster’s Dictionary is unlimited in might, omnipotent, all-powerful, and irresistible. It can also mean great, or extreme.
Today, we will be focusing on Him as the Prince of Peace. Sar-Shalom is derived from two Hebrew words. Sar, according to the Hebrew Strong’s Dictionary, means a head person (of any rank or class), a captain (that had rule), lord, and of course prince. By being the Son of the Creator, if we where to use royal titles to describe Jesus, that would obviously make Him, Prince. The Hebrew Strong’s Dictionary defines Shalom (shaw-lome’) as safe, well, rest, and peace. It is also seen spelled shalowm (same pronunciation).
The KM Hebrew Dictionary suggests that the meaning of this name is plural in form but singular in meaning. This captures the essence of who God is – a Trinitarian Being – 3 persons, one God. The idea of the trinity is one in which many people have struggled to understand. Elohim is also defined as mighty one, great one, or judge. The Concise Dictionary of Classical Hebrew defines Elohim as a divine being, deity, or ghost. It is interesting to note that this name of God is used 2,600 times in the Old Testament and was considered to designate the One True God. It is also believed that this name contains plurality to indicate the fullness of His power and the majesty of His kingly rule.
Paraklētos (par-ak'-lay-tos), according to the Greek Strong’s Dictionary, is a singular masculine noun that means an intercessor, consoler. It can also mean advocate, comforter, or helper. An advocate, as used in this Name, is someone who appears in another’s behalf. An advocate’s role is to fight for someone, especially for a person’s rights. To put it into perspective, it is like a defense attorney. So, if you’re needing a defensive attorney, then that means there is a plaintiff or prosecutor.
The phrase “di ou ta panta” in Greek literally means all through Him. In English, we have the present tense, and past tense, etc. but in Greek, there are cases to denote whether the words denote possession, past tense, and more. In the case of this phrase, the genitive case is used, and the genitive case always denotes possession. Often, you will find the use of the word “of” in the English translation to signify the possession. For example, we say John’s shoe, but in the Greek, they would say the shoe of John and both the shoe and John would be in the genitive case. This helped readers to understand who possessed the shoe. It is interesting to note that this name of God is in the genitive case. It could also be translated all of Him, hence why we translate this name as My Everything.
In this verse, David uses El, which is a Hebrew word meaning God. He goes on to use nathan (naw-than’), for the word “grants”. Nathan, according to the Hebrew Strong’s Dictionary, means add, apply, appoint, ascribe. For vengeance, David uses the word neqamah (nek-aw-maw’). It is actually spelled nqamah, but to eliminate improper pronunciation, an “e” is normally added after the “n”. Neqamah is defined in the Hebrew Strong’s Dictionary as avengement, whether the act of the passion, to avenge, revenge, vengeance.
The Hebrew word used for Lord here is YHWH. Kevin has discussed this previously, so I will not go over it again, however if you need a refresher, you may read more about it in our study of the name Jehovah-Jireh. The Hebrew word used here for strike is nakah (naw-kaw). However, the Masoretic Text (the traditional Hebrew text) spells the word Makkeh, hence why we use Makkeh rather than nakah. The Hebrew Strong’s dictionary states that it means to strike, to smite, to beat, to punish, to wound, and to slay. It may also mean to send judgment upon, punish, or destroy.
Adonai is the plural form of the Hebrew word adon, according to the Jewish Encyclopedia, and means lord or master. I believe that when Nehemiah used this name, he actually understood that God was a triune being, therefore he used the plural form of the word. Some may argue that because God is the Lord of all things in and beneath Heaven, the plural form was used to denote His many areas of Lordship.
Abraham refers to God here as Shaphat (shaw-fat) or judge in Hebrew. While it can mean judge, it can also mean to vindicate or punish, to govern, to litigate, to avenge, plead, reason, and rule according to the Strong’s Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary of the Old Testament. The KM Hebrew Dictionary states that it may also mean tobe brought to trial or to argue a matter. No wonder, then, why Holy Spirit is called our Advocate (John 14:26) and Jesus Christ is referred to as our Mediator (1 Timothy 2:5).
Akal (aw-kal’), in the Hebrew Strong’s Dictionary, means to eat (literally or figuratively): burn up, consume, devour. Esh (aysh) is a Hebrew and Aramaic word that means fire or flame. Studying this out, we see how serious God is about worshipping only Him. He is a God of righteous fire. Fire is commonly know as only a destroyer however, it is also used as a purifier.
Mighty God. God is surely mighty. He is filled with strength, a strength that is unmatched by today’s standards; a strength that is unmatched in all of Creation. The Hebrew word for mighty is gibbhor (ghib-bore). It is an intensive form of the geber which means valiant man. Gibbhor has several meanings to include powerful, warrior, champion, chief, excel, giant, mighty, and strong according to the Hebrew Strong’s Dictionary. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament defines the meaning as omnipotent God, a military hero, champion, and chief gatekeeper. It is clear to see, God is all of those and more!
Today’s Name of God may look familiar to you. Last week, we went over a name of God that shared the same root word. Paul used it in an Epistle to Timothy as describing God to be King Eternal. In today’s name, we see John the Beloved telling us, in the Book of Revelation, what he saw on the robe and thigh of Jesus. This is extremely significant and should not be taken lightly.